By the 15th century, glass painting had evolved greatly. By applying the paint in thin layers and washes, the subtle effects of shading and texture could be created. This might be achieved by using different binders for each layer, or by firing between applications of paint. Paint could be removed before it was fixed to the base glass using sticks and brushes of differing stiffness to create still more effects.
Sophisticated cross hatching can be seen in the Princess Cecily panel from the Becket window in Canterbury Cathedral. Princess Cecilia or Cecily (1469-1507), third daughter of Edward IV, married after 1482 John, Viscount Wells, whose arms appear in what remains of the Becket window.
The Royal Family now occupy a middle range of the window which was mostly destroyed on December 13th, 1643 by a minister wielding a pike “on the top of the citie ladder, near sixty steps high”. The figure of Princess Cecilia, kneeling between her sisters Elizabeth and Anne as she appears to-day in the north window of the northwest transept at Canterbury, is a modern replica.